Monday, June 10, 2013

Determining the Type of Bond

Wednesday, May 22, 2013

Four Quantum Numbers ... or This -- go ahead and click

There are four quantum numbers (n, l, ml, ms). No two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers. Each quantum number describes a different aspect of the electron and its orbital. These numbers are obtained from the solution of the Schrödinger Equation for atoms in spherical coordinates.

n, the principle quantum number

n tells you about the size of the orbital.  It is related to how far the electron is from the atom.  It is also related to the energy of the electron. ncan be any positive integer number.  An orbital has n1radial nodes as well, which describe a radius at which the probability of finding the electron is 0.

l, azimuthal quantum number

lt tells you about the angular momentum of the electron in the orbital.  It defines the shape of the orbital.  lt can be any integer between (and including) 0 and (n1).  Each orbital has lplanar nodes.
Some examples of orbitals with different l:
l=0is an s orbital, with no planar nodes.
S orbitals.jpg
l=1gives a p orbital, which has one planar node.
p orbital 1.JPG 

ml, magnetic quantum number

ml tells you about the angular momentum projected on to the z axis. It tells you of the orientation of the orbital. It can be any integer between l and l.
l=1 has 3 different (but degenerate) ml possible values:-1,0 or 1. 
px orbital 1.JPG
py orbital 1.JPG
pz orbital 1.JPG

ms spin projection quantum number

mstells you about the spin of the electron.  An electron is a fermion, a type of quantum particle which is only allowed to have msequal to -1/2 or 1/2.

Tuesday, May 21, 2013

Characteristics of the Periodic Table: Omg

Ionization energies get larger as you move to the right and "up" in the periodic table


Which element has the highest ionization energy:

Ar or Kr

Ga or As

S or Te

Atomic Radius' decrease from left to right and "up" of the periodic table (opposite of ionization energies).

Electronegativity  increases from left to right of the periodic table.  It also increase as you go "up" the periodic table.  Same as Ionization energies.  The exception to this are the groups (families) 2A, 5A and 8A(noble gases) which are usually much lower in electronegativity than the surrounding atoms.  

Tuesday, May 14, 2013

Drawing Orbitals... Beats Me

Sort-of helpful links:

here or here 

More of the Same: Electron Configuration

s   =  2
p   = 6
d   = 10
f    = 14

Difference by 4

2s  2p
3s  3p  3d
4s  4p  4d  4f
5s  5p  5d  5f
6s  6p  6d  6f
7s  7p  7d  7f 

1s  2s  2p  3s  3p  4s  3d  4p  5s  4d  5p  6s  4f  5d  6p  7s  5f  6d  7p

1s^2  2s^2  2p^6  3s^2  3p^6  4s^2  3d^10  4p^6  5s^2  4d^10 5p^6  6s^2  4f^14  5d^10  6p^6  7s^2  5f^14  6d^10  7p^6

Ca = 20 electrons

Ca = 1s^2  2s^2  2p^6  3s^2  3p^6  4s^2

Ge = 32 electrons

Ge =  1s^2  2s^2  2p^6  3s^2  3p^6  4s^2  3d^10  4p^2

Ru = 44 electrons

Ru = 1s^2  2s^2  2p^6  3s^2  3p^6  4s^2  3d^10  4p^6  5s^2  4d^6

Au+ =  78 electrons (i.e., + makes it lose one of it's 79 electrons)

Au+ = 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^10 5p^6 4f^14 5d^10

S^-2 = 18 electrons

S^-2 = 1s^2  2s^2  2p^6  3s^2  3p^6

Ag+ = 46 electrons

Ag+ = 1s^2  2s^2  2p^6  3s^2  3p^6  4s^2  3d^10  4p^6  5s^2  4d^6

Helpful Links (the people who answer questions on Yahoo ahhh-maze me):
ahh-mazing person

Electron Configuration A.K.A. Happiness Has Left My Soul

Electron Configuration 

After watching way too many videos, in order to try and understand what the f@#$ is going on here (... Not to mention -yeah, lets mention the mother f out of the things people choose not to mention- why any of us need to know "electron configuration" because I sure as hell know my dad doesn't remember this, and he's a doctor -but, hey, that doesn't matter...  And, YEAH, yeah it does matter; yet, no one seems to be questioning this, besides my own damn self.  You wanna know what that feels like?  Feels like this...), I decided this one was slightly kind.  Before you want to jump off a ledge, watch it; you'll probably still feel bad -perhaps because you'll forget ALL of this, unless you're trying to be a hardcore scientist- but also maybe a tad bit better. 

Monday, May 13, 2013

About Me

Just thought I'd share a few clips that someone took of me, over the last century of 6 weeks.

First Day of Class

So, I guess I should go ahead and let out the secret.
This story was written about me.
I found out a few years ago.


Microscope – device used to view objects which are too small to see or explore with your eye alone. 

Compound – when a scope has a minimum to two magnifying lenses.

Binocular – two eyepieces. 

Monocular – one eyepiece.

Stereoscopic (dissecting) microscope – a microscope with relatively low magnification that is good for viewing large, thick objects.

Transmitted light – light passing through an object, used by many types of microscopes.

Reflected or incident light – light directed down on an object, used by dissecting scopes.

Magnification – the ratio of the image size to the actual size; apparent enlargement of an object.

Resolution - the ability of a microscope to distinguish between two very close points.

Electron microscope – microscope that uses electrons as a source of illumination.

Biology Lab

Control Variable
Variables that are kept constant during the experiment( variables not being minupulated)
Tentative explanation for an observation
Independent Variable
What the investigator varies in the experiment (for example, time, pH, temperature, concentration)
Process used to measure the dependent variable
Level of Treatment
Appropriate values to use for the independent variable
Treatment that eliminates the independent variable or sets it as a standard value
What the investigator measures, counts, or records; what is being affected in the experiment.
Number of times the experiment is repeated
Statement of the expected results of an experiment based on the hypothesis
Independent Variable:      X Axis
Dependent Variable:         Y Axis

Sunday, May 12, 2013

Quantum Numbers: Gettin' Down with 3P (everybody loves countin')

Schrödinger's model: 3 (peter, paul & mary) quantum numbers, to describe the orbitals in which electrons can be found. (SSO: Size, Shape, Orientation)

The principal quantum number (n) describes the size of the orbital.
The angular quantum number (l) describes the shape of the orbital.
The magnetic quantum number (m) describes the orientation in space of a particular orbital.

Orbitals have shapes that are best described as spherical (l = 0), polar (l = 1), or cloverleaf (l = 2). They can even take on more complex shapes as the value of the angular quantum number becomes larger.

(n) cannot be zero. The allowed values of n are therefore 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on
(l) can be any integer between 0 and n - 1. If n = 3, for example, l can be either 0, 1, or 2.
(m) can be any integer between -l and +l. If l = 2, m can be either -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2.

Friday, May 10, 2013

Determine Energy of Mol of Photons of Light

  • Wavelength is normally reported in nanometers (nm) and should be converted to meters for energy calculation purposes
What you'll need:

Convert (nm) to (m): Wavelength in (nm) X by 10 ^ -9

Speed of Light: 3.0 x 10^8 m/s

Planck's Constant:  6.63 x 10^-34

Avogadro's Number:  6.02 x 10^23

Energy of a Photon (in particles) = Speed of Light X Planck's Constant / Wavelength

Convert particles to mol -->  Avagadro's Number (6.02) X 10^23  X  Wavelength (in particles)

Convert g/mol to kJ/mol  = g/mol / 1,000


Determine the energy of 1.40{\rm mol} of photons for: 

Infrared radiation (1580{\rm nm}

Convert Wavelength from (nm) to (m):  1580 nm X 10^-9 = 0.00000158 = 1.58 X 10 ^ -6 (m)

Energy of a Photon (in particles) = 3.0 X 10^8 * 6.63 X 10 ^ -34 / 1.58 X 10 ^ -6 = 0.0000000000000000001258860759493670886075949367088607594936708861 = 1.259 X 10 ^ -19

Convert particles to 1.40 mol = 1.259 X 10 ^ -19 * (6.02 X 10^23) * 1.40 = 106096.78481012658227848101265822784810126582280508 = 1.06 X 10^5 g/mol

Convert g/mol to kJ/mol = 1.06 X 10^5 / 1000 = 106 kJ

Sidenote (in the form of what you call a Red-flag): Instead of stupidly calculating the Speed of Light X Planck's Constant everysingle mother f'ing time (hello & hi, why am I doing this), let's just calculate that baby and put it on the shelf.

Speed of Light X Planck's Constant (a.k.a half of the equation, during step #2):
or 1.99 X 10^-25

Visible light (495{\rm nm} )

495 (nm) X 10^-9 = 4.95 * 10^-7 (m)

3.0 * 10^8 X 6.63 * 10^-34 / 4.95*10^-7 = 0.00000000000000000040181818181818181818
= 4.02 X 10^-19

4.02 * 10^-19 X (6.02 X 10^23) X 1.40 = 338652.36 or 3.39 X 10^5 g/mol

33880.56/1000 = 338.65 = 339

Ultraviolet radiation (155{\rm nm} )

155 (nm) X 10^-9 = 0.000000155 = 1.55 * 10^-7

 1.99 X 10^-25/1.55 *10^-7 = 0.0000000000000000012838709677419354839
= 1.28 * 10^-18

1.28 * 10^-18 X (6.02 X 10^23) X 1.40 = 1082046.45161290322583092 or 1.08 X 10^6 g/mol

1.08 X 10^6 / 1000 = 1082.04645161290322583092 = 1082

Quantum Numbers: Combinations of n & l

Formula: Uncertainty in an Electron's Position

An electron traveling at 2.7×105 has an uncertainty in its velocity of 8.94×104 . What is the uncertainty in its position?



Wednesday, May 8, 2013

(#@% Me) Biology Exam #2: Tomorrow

What's up when it feels like everything and nothing are both happening...  Yeah.

Seeing as that I received a lower-than-F (um, yeah), here's my study guide for the test that I'll take, surely without any sleep.  Meanwhile, everything else in life is making no sense.  Funny how that works.

Size of Cells
* We want to maximize surface area to volume: a.k.a we want a greater surface area, rather than a larger volume, because for each square micrometer of membrane, only a limited amount of a particular substance can cross per second. 

*Parallel:  If an average-sized person eats the same amount as an over-weight person, neither may lose any weight that day (without exercising).  Either way, the average-sized person is better off -when we're considering what's going inside.

Important sidenote: It's currently 3:33 AM.  Last time I checked the clock, it was 2:22 AM.  Thank you, angels (kow).

*If a cell's volume increases, it's surface area increases, but at a decreased rate.  If you continued to increase the cell's volume, it would soon be unable to efficiently exchange materials (ions, gases, nutrients, wastes) w/their environment, and it would die.  This is why larger organisms don't generally have larger cells than smaller organisms; they simply have more cells.
* A.K.A. As a cell grows, its Surface Area:Volume decreases; at some point in growth, its surface area is too small to supply its raw materials to its greater volume.
*Parallel: The more you eat, the bigger & hungrier you become = the less food you'll have in your kitchen.

ALL CELLS (have this in common)

Cell Membrane:

* regulates what comes in & out of cell, keeps material on either side
* it's fluid, and it's always in movement
Made of 2 Things . . . 
 ~ Phospholipids
- keeps water on either side, thus making the structure
- hydrophilic (likes water) head, hydrophobic (hates water) tail
- they float back & forth
- allows the movement of material
~ Proteins
- allows material in
- connects to material outside
Eukaryotic Cells: People, Animals, Plants, Fungi (nice...), Protists
*compartmentalization allows these cells to be larger (by *specialization & *surface area)
* has a nucleus (where DNA is stored)
* organelles (tiny organs that specialize in certain functions -e.g., smooth ER is an organelle)
* linear chromosomes (rather than loops)
* introns (sections of DNA that don't code genes)
* cytoskeleton (gives it structure)

Cytoplasm A.K.A. Cytosol
- Gooey liquid of the cell
- Mostly water, thus dissolves materials and allows for diffusion from one place to another
- Chalk full of enzymes, proteins, ribosomes

Cytoskeleton A.K.A. the Skeleton of the Cell
- Gives structure and shape to the cell
* All three components interact with each other non-covalently.
The cytoskeleton proteins are multifunctional and are also involved in whole-cell movements and movements of substances within the cell.
Three main structural components of the cytoskeleton:
Microtubules (formed be actins) 
* found in all eukaryotic cells
* hollow rods about 25 nm in diameter with 15nm lumen
* structure: wall consists of 13 columns of tubulin molecules
* wall of the tube is constructed from a globular protein called tubulin
* each tubulin protein is a dimer (molecule made of 2 subunits) -each consisting of 2 slightly different polypeptides
* microtubules grow in length by adding tubulin dimers
* functions: maintenance of cell shape (compression-resisting); cell motility (as in cilia or flagella); chromosome movements in cell division; organelle movements
Microfilaments (formed by tubulins): two strands of pearls
* two intertwined strands of actin, each a polymer of actin subunits
* 7nm diameter
Functions: maintenance of cell shape (tension bearing); changes in cell shape; muscle contraction; cytoplasmic streaming; cell motility (pseudopodia/fake foot); cell division
Intermediate filaments
* fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables
* 8-12 nm
* one of several proteins (such as keratins) depending on cell type
* functions: maintanence of cell shape (tension bearing); anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles; formation of nuclear lamina

Endomembrane System includes:
  • Rough ER
  • Smooth ER
  • Transport Vesicles
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Lysosomes
  • Microbodies
  • Peroxisomes
Endomembrane System functions in part in:
  • protein synthesis
  • protein modification
  • protein sorting
  • protein transport

Path of proteins through the Endomembrane System:
Proteins are made on ribosomes bound to the RER and move through the endomembrane syystem, transported in vesicles (I'm so sure/wtf is going on here) to the golgi apparatus, to the plasma membrane, and out, yo.

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - folded membrane 
 Rough ER  
 - makes proteins
 Ribosomes (protein synthesis/a.k.a. where proteins are produced) in the cytoplasm
     * Made in the nucleolus 
     *complexes made of ribosomal RNA and protein
     *free ribosomes (suspended in the cytosol)
     *bound ribosomes (attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope)
 Smooth ER
 - makes lipids
 - makes steroids
 - metabolism or breaking-down of carbohydrates
 - breaks down toxins inside the cell

Golgi Apparatus (yeah, okay)
* where proteins go (transported in vesicles) to be modified and packaged
* where lysosomes (where material is broken-down) are produced

Lysosomes: a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal uses to digest (hydrolyze) macromolecules
* hydrolytic enzymes and lysosomal membrane are made by rough ER and then transferred to the Golgi apparatus for further processing.
* they also use their hydrolytic enzymes to recycle the cell's own organic material, a process called autophagy
* with the help of lysosomes, the cell continually renews itself
* has enzymes that work in oxygen-poor areas and lower PH

Deals w/Energy:
     - breaks down sugars from photosynthesis
     - found in all Eukaryotic Cells 
     - makes ATP
     - same size as bacteria and archaea
    -they're folded to increase surface area
    - some genes found here
    - found in plants
    - some genes found here 
    - always present when there's photosynthesis 

Quick & Simple Video: All About the Nucleus
*contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell
*most noticable organelle in a cell (average is 5um in diameter)
Nuclear envelope: double membrane (each a lipid bilayer separated by a space of 20-40 um) enclosing the nucleus; perforated by pores (pore complex lines each pore and regulates the entry and exit of proteins and RNAs in the cell, as well as macromolecules); continuous with ER; separates its contents from cytoplasm
Nuclear lamina (lines the surface of the nuclear envelope): netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by supporting the nuclear envelope; helps organize genetic material so it functions efficiently.
Nuclear matrix: framework of protein fibers; helps organize genetic material so it functions efficiently.
Nucleolus: nonmembranous structure involved in production of ribosomes (ribosomal RNA); a nucleus has one or more nucleoli
Chromatin: material consisting DNA and proteins; visible in a dividing cell as individual condensed chromosomes.
Chromosome: DNA is organized into units called chromosomes.  Each chromosome contains one long DNA molecule associated with many proteins

Prokaryotic Cells: Bacteria & Archaea
* all small (to increase surface area)
* evolved before Eukaryotic Cells
* do not have double membrane
* only one "naked" chromosome (circular molecule)
* Cytoplasm
* Their flagella rotate, unlike ours

Plant Cells:
* Thick Cell Wall
* Chloroplast :
* Mitochondria
* Vacuole
Animal Cells:
* Mitochondria

... Just looked at the clock once again, while feeling sad.  4:44 AM

Peroxisome: a specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane, holds on to enzymes that require oxygen
  • contain (oxidative) enzymes that remove hydrogen atoms from various substrates and transfer them to oxygen (O2), thus producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
  • Take H --> O2 --> H202
  • some peroxisomes use oxygen to break fatty acids down into smaller molecules that are transported to the mitochondria and used as fuel for cellular respiration
  • detoxify alcohol and other harmful compounds by transferring hydrogen from the poisons to oxygen
  • they also contain an enzyme that convert H2O2 to water
  •  play a role in cholesterol synthesis and the digestion of amino acids
  • liver cells most likely have a lot of peroxisome

Random Stuff
*Oxygen needs to get into a cell through diffusion (bc it doesn't have a charge)
*Carbon Dioxide is going to get out of a cell (bc it doesn't have a charge)
*Nucleus, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts = They all have double membranes

Chew on this... (maybe while smoking?)
"Goal of life: increase surface area"

Compartmentalization = parts within the parts  . . . Think nesting dolls -and, while you're at it, remember love is all you need, at the end of the day -not made-up labels like Golgi Apparatus.

  • knock on wood

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

To What Volume You Dilute A Solution

To what volume should you dilute 20mL of a 11.0M {\rm{H}}_2 {\rm{SO}}_4 solution to obtain a 0.140M {\rm{H}}_2 {\rm{SO}}_4 solution? 
Dilution Equation: M1*V1 = M2*V2

Find out what the final volume,V2, should be as a start.

V2 = M1*V1 / M2

= (11.0M)(20 mL)/(0.140M)

= 1571.42857 mL
* 1000 ml = 1 L

1571.42857 mL/1000 = 1.57142857 = 1.6 (rounded to two significant numbers)

Molarity of the Diluted Solution...

If 3.5L of a 5.1M {\rm{SrCl}}_2 solution is diluted to 40L , what is the molarity of the diluted solution? 
Molarity of Diluted Solution = 3.5 X 5.1 = 17.85 / 40 = .44625 = .45 Mor
Molarity of Diluted Solution = 5.1M X (3.5/40)
Molarity of Diluted Solution = .44625 M = .45 M (rounded to two significant numbers)

Mass, Volume, & Molarity of a Solution: Stuff for CHEMISTS

A chemist (ahem, I guarantee any non-chemist will not remember having done this equation during college/etc., even if he or she does it 100 times... and, if they do remember it, maybe they are a genius, but will they ever use it, ponder it, find happiness in life from remembering it...) wants to make 5.0L of a 0.270M {\rm{CaCl}}_2 solution
What mass of {\rm{CaCl}}_2 (in {\rm g}) should the chemist use? 
Given Volume of the solution , V = 5.0 L
Molarity of the solution , M = 0.270 M
Molar mass of CaCl2: 40.078 + 2(35.453) = 110.984 g /mol
Mass of CaCl2 = (V) x (Molarity) x (Molar Mass of CaCl2)
5.0 X .270 X 110.984 = 149.8284 = 150 (rounded to two significant numbers)